Measurement Of Personality: 4 Methods

The Thematic Apperception Test (TAT), developed by Henry Murray, consists of a series of ambiguous pictures, which the subject is requested to describe and tell a story about. 3. What are the characters in the story thinking and feeling? Psychodynamic Theories  Psychodynamic theories are based on Sigmund Freud ’s theory of psychoanalysis and emphasize unconscious motives and the importance of childhood experiences in shaping personality. University professors gave approximately equal ratings to professional reasons (i.e., provides information about personality structure, saves the therapist time. One purpose is to obtain information for making predictions. There are distinct advantages and disadvantages to projective tests, depending both on the type of test and the purpose for which it is used. Projective techniques are used with greater frequency in psychiatric settings whereas interest, aptitude, and objective personality tests are used more frequently in counseling and community mental health centers. The Rorschach Inkblot test was not originally intended to be a projective measure of personality.

Add Question Here Question 199 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question A collection of assessment devices and interviews used to depict a client’s personality are referred to as Answer projective testing. The incomplete sentence technique given by Rotter, Stein and many others is a type of paper-and-pencil personality inventory which has features of an association test as well as of a projective technique. The assumptions underlying projective tests such as the Rorschach and TAT are that the standard set of stimuli are used as a screen to project material that cannot be obtained through a more structured approach. When used with a client, projective personality tests, tests can be thought of as conducting a standard interview with the client, after which they report descriptive information (scores) having an approximately known level of reliability. Counseling psychologists’ emphasis on identifying the psychological attributes of work environments and integrating this information into their practice is relatively unique among the applied specialties of psychology.

Holland’s theory has achieved widespread acceptance and influenced research in personality psychology as well as theory, research, and practice in counseling psychology. “Given that sources of information in personality assessment are far from interchangeable,” it would be optimal to further differentiate all questionnaire methods by specifying the type of informant providing judgments” (Meyer & Kurtz, 2006, p. Use information from your researched peer-reviewed articles and required sources to support your work in each section. The self-interpreting test is intended to provide them with the information they need without involving a relatively high-priced psychological specialist. Many psychologists use tests to obtain a significant part of the information they need and they use the interview to obtain information about the overall context into which the test information fits. The rationale underlying self-interpreting tests such as the SDS is that many persons need reliable and valid information rather than counseling or psychotherapy. Despite the overwhelming evidence of the superiority of actuarial predictions, the use of test information in clinical practice is virtually unchanged since the first publication of Meehl’s book. Another relatively unique assessment practice of counseling psychology is the self-administering, self-scoring, self-interpreting test.

This practice insures that all clients will have the benefit of a comprehensive assessment program. Some tests are designed for use with specific age ranges, so counseling psychologists who work with adult clients use tests that are different from the tests used by those who work with children and adolescents. The tests used most frequently by counseling psychologists include objective and projective personality tests, individually administered tests of cognitive functioning, vocational interest tests, and brief scales to assess specific symptomology. The specific assessment procedures used by counseling psychologists vary somewhat as a function of the setting, client characteristics, and reason for seeking services. Actually, this issue is given scant attention by the discipline, but most counseling psychologists appear to use assessment procedures for one of three purposes. In 1954, Paul Meehl called attention to the fact that trained therapists are not as accurate in making predictions from tests as a statistical formula. The statistical formula is almost always more accurate.

To date 136 research studies have compared the ability of trained therapists to predict important future behaviors of an individual using both test and non-test information with the accuracy of a statistical formula. Recently, Howard E. A. Tinsley and Serena Chu reviewed 65 studies that directly investigated test interpretation outcomes. Typically, no differences among the modes of test interpretation were found. Although many standardized scoring systems have been created for the TAT, a survey of North American psychologists practicing in juvenile and family courts found that only 3 percent used any of them. Based on the findings, CATRS appears to have sufficient reliability to recommend its continued frequent use. However, insufficient attention has been given to the reliability and validity of the assessment practices of counseling psychologists. Psychology has given painstaking attention to the development of procedures for evaluating the reliability and validity of measuring instruments (i.e., tests), and training in the use of assessment devices is required for all counseling psychologists. A major innovation of the last three decades has been the development of self-interpreting interest inventories such as the SDS and CISS. Some scales have three or seven degrees.

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